Forcas Defensa Timor Lorosa´e

Husi Wikipédia, ensiklopédia livre
(Redirected from F-FDTL)
Emblema F-FDTL nian

Falintil-Forcas Defensa Timor Lorosa´e ka (F-FDTL, port.: Falintil-Forças de Defesa de Timor-Leste) ne forsas armadas nebe iha atu defende rai Timor Lorosa´e. F-FDTL harii iha Febreru 2001 no too agora iha ona batallaun infanteria rua nebe mak: Komponente Naval kik-oan ida no Unidade Suportasaun nian balun.

F-FDTL ninia knar primeiro mak proteje rai Timor lorosa´e husi atakasaun rai liur. Rai Timor mos iha seguridade ba rai laran, nebe mak halao husi Policia Nacional de Timor Leste ka (PNTL), maibé knaar ida ne dala ruma sira uza sala no indisiplina hodi lori konfrontasaun ho F-FDTL.

Problema F-FDTL nebe boot liu mosu iha 2006 kuando metade husi forsa ema duni sai. Dimisaun ida nee halo instusaun rua ne F-FDTL no PNTL atu besik rahun nunee governu foti kedas medidas invita forcas armadas nasaun liur hodi mai halo kalma situasaun.

Knar[edita]

Lei inan RDTL nian fo knar ba F-FDTL atu responsabiliza proteksaun rai Timor husi atakasaun rai liur nian. Lei inan dehan katak F-FDTL "tenki garantia independensia nasaun nian, integridade territorial no libertasaun no seguridade ba povu i kontra agresaun saida deit nebe mai husi liur, ho respeitu ba orden konstitusional". Lei inan mos hateten katak F-FDTL "tenki netral no tenki obedece ba orgaun kompetente kon respeitu ba ley konstitusional, no sei labele interviene iha aksaun politika". PNTL sira no Forca seguransa civil sira mak responsable ba seguransa rai laran nian.[1]

Praktikamente knar F-FDTL no Policia National de Timor Leste (PNTL) ladun klaru, hodi ida ne mak resulta konfliktu entre orgaun rua ne.[2] [3] Conversely, (Policia Nacional de Timor-Leste, PNTL) involve ona iha defeza ita nia rai ketan iha parte loro-monu. Konfliktu entre polisia i militar ne mosu tamba governu Timor faila atu hametin estabilidade rai laran.[2] Tan ne iha Febreru 2010 Governu kria ona legislasaun atu define klaru liu tan knar ba orgaun rua ne iha Timor.[4]

Istoria[edita]

Pre-independensia[edita]

F-FDTL forma husi Movimentu Libertasaun Nasional Armada Guerrilia konyesidu ho FALINTIL (''Forças Armadas de Libertação de Timor-Leste''). Durante periodo antes de 1999 lider timorense balun, inclui presidente agora Presidente Timor Lorosa´e José Ramos-Horta, fo proposta katak iha futuru nasaun Timor Lorosa´e sei laiha nia forsa militar. Maibé ho violensia no destruksaun nebe mosu wainhira timor manan votasaun iha 1999 ano iha nesesidade atu fo servisu ba veteranus FALINTIL nian, ne mak obriga timor troka nia opiniaun no konsige harii duni nia forsas armadas militar nian.[5] Ba dala uluk forsas armadas harii ho 5,000 personnel.[6]

Iha 2000 klaran United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) invita tim ida husi King's College London atu lori estudu ida ba opsaun seguransa Timor Leste nian. Reportadu tim ne nian identifika opsaun tolu ba militar timorense ida. opsaun 1 Ne basadu ba FALINTIL nia preferensia ba relativo armada militar nebe barak no todan ho 3,000–5,000 personnel, Opsaun 2 forsas ida husi 1,500 regulares no 1,500 conscripts no Opsaunn 3 ne ba forsas ida ho 1,500 regulares no 1,500 reservista voluntario.[7] Tim ba estudo recomenda Opsaunn 3 nudar opsaun ida diak liu ba seguridade Timor Lorosa´e nian no basea ba situasaun de nesesidade ekonomika rai nian. UNTAET simu rekomendasaun ne iha Septembro 2000 no forma base ba planu forsa defeza Timor Lorosa´e nian.[5] Ema hotu-hotu iha rai Timor laran nebe uluk kontribui ba seguransa nasaun nian mos simu hotu proposta ne.[8] The King's College report ne hetan kritika katak ho reporte ida ne, lori Timor Lorosa´e hodi establece forsas polisia nebe boot no ermadas militar nebe boot wainhira nasaun ne nia seguridade bele garantia deit ho forca ida kiik-oan ida paramilitar.[9]

Kunadu Timor Lorosa´e nia desizaun atu forma forsas militar ne hetan kritika husi komentador balun, Governu Timor Lorosa´e ho razaun no fiar makaas katak forsa ne nesesario duni ba seguransa rai nian. Komentadores sira dehan katak nudar Timor Lorosa´e la halo aksaun ruma ba rai liur diak liu usa rekursu limitadu governu nian hodi hametin liutan PNTL nian. Nudar lider politika Timor Leste nian rekonyese katak sira la halo enfrentamientu ho liur, sira fiar katak ne nesesariu atu mantein kapasidade militar nian atu defende nasaun husi agresaun iha futuru. Establesimientu F-FDTL ne mos sai hanesan siginifikasaun efektivu husi integrasaun FALINTIL ba Timor Leste ida nebe independente.[10]

Formasaun F-FDTL[edita]

FALINTIL veterans

FALINTIL ofisialmente sai F-FDTL 1 Febreru 2001. Membrus 650 primeiru de F-FDTL ne selektadu husi 1,736 aplikantes FALINTIL no komesa treinamentu iha 29 Marsu. 1ra Batailaun FDTL nian establese iha 29 Juniu 2001 no too metin liu tan iha 1 Dezembro. Membru barak liu husi battalaun ne mai husi ema lorosa´e.[11] 2da Battalaun establese iha 2002 ho kader husi 1ra Battalaun no iha personel foun barak mak tinan 21 ba kraik nebe la participa ba luta independencia nian.[12] .[13] F-FDTL nia Komponente Naval Kiik ne harii iha Dezembro 2001.[14]

F-FDTL komesa asume responsabilidade ba seguransa rai Timor nian nebe UN peacekeeping force komesa husik ona. Distritu Lauteinne sai primeira area nebe husik ba F-FDTL nia liman iha Juilu 2002. Depois ida ne F-FDTL kaer hotu reponsabilidade fseguridade externo nasaun nian iha 20 de Mayo 2004, al tantu forsa seguridade internasional balun sei iha Timor Leste too metade-2005.[15] F-FDTL konduce nia primeira operasaun iha Janeiru 2003 wunidade armada ida bolu ba atu hapara aktividade kriminal nebe halo husimilisia loromonu iha distritu Ermera. F-FDTL sufre ona nia moral nebe seriu liu no problema disiplina desde nia establesimentu.[16]

Tensaun manas entre F-FDTL no PNTL mos reduse efektividade serviso seguridade nasaun nian. Durante 2003 i 2004, membru husi polisia no F-FDTL enfrenta malu iha okasaun barak, no grupu soldado sira aataka estasaun polisia nian iha Setembru 2003 no Dezembru 2004.[17]

Krize 2006[edita]

Template:Details Template:Externalimage Tensaun entre F-FDTL to´o nia tutun iha 2006. Iha Janeiru, 159 soldadu husi unidade boot F-FDTL reklama petisaun ida ba Prezidente Xanana Gusmão katak soldadus husi lorosa´e hetan tratamentu diak liu duke loromonu sira. 'petitioners' hetan deit resposta oituan tan ne sira husik sira nia markas semana tolu depois, husik hela sira nia kilat.[18] sira halibur hamutuk ho soldadus seluk atus ba atus no iha 16 Marsu komandante F-FDTL's , Brigadier General Taur Matan Ruak, despide 594 soldados, nebe besik mitade forsa timor nian.[17] Soldaus despedidus laos deit petisionarios sira, maibé inklui mos ofisial 200 nebe falta bebeik nebe sidauk fila fulan hira ona antes fulan Marsu 2006.[18]

Krise ne hodi to´o violensia iha fin de Abril. iha 24 Abril, petitioner sira no ssira nia suporter balun halo demonstrasaun durante loron hat iha Palacio Do Governo nia oin iha Dili bolu atu halo establecimentu ba komisaun independente ida atu identifika sira nia keixas. violencia nakfera iha 28 Abril wainhira petisioner balun no gangs foinsae ataka Palacio Do Governo. PNTL sira la tahan atu hapara violensia tan ne Palacio ema sunu tiha. Depois ke violensia naklekar ba area seluk iha Dili Laran, Primeiru Ministru Mari Alkatiri husu F-FDTL nia tulun atu restaura situasaun. Tropa sira nebe laiha esperensia ba kontrola violensia hatun duni iha Dili iha 29 Abril no resulta ema nain tolu mak mate. Iha 3 de Mayo Major Alfredo Reinado, komandante unidade Polisia MilitarF-FDTL nian, no mayoria nia soldao inkluye Lt Gastão Salsinha husik sira nia pos nudar protesta ba ema civil nebe mate tan F-FDTL mak tiru.[19]

Tiru malu mos mosu entre Forca de Seguridade Nasional nian ho arebelde no gang sira iha fin de May. Iha 23 Mayo Reinado ho nia grupu rebelde tiru personel F-FDTL no PNTL Fatu Ahi. Iha 24 Mayo personnel F-FDTL nebe besik sira nia Quarters-boot hetan ataka husi rebelde (offisial polisi), petitioner sira no civil armado. Ataka ne derotadu wainhira ro patrulla Componente Naval F-FDTL nian tiru atakantes sira.[20] Durante krize ne relasaun entre F-FDTL and PNTL sai aat liu tan, iha 25 Mayo membrus F-FDTL ataka PNTL nia Quarters-boot, oho official polisia sin armas nain sia.[17]

Ho resultado violencia nebe sai aat liu tan, hakaas an no husu forsa internasional iha 25 Mayo. Forsa Paz sira bkomesa to´o Dili loron tuir mai sira komesa restaura situasaun. um total ema nain 37 mak mate iha krize ne iha Apbil Mayo no 155,000 husik sira nia uma. Nacoens Unidas hetan katak ministru sira defeza no interior no komandante F-FDTL entrega kilat ilegalnmente ba civil durante crisis no rekomenda kata sei halo juisio ba sira.[21]

Planu ba dezenvolvimentu de forsas[edita]

Krize 2006 husik F-FDTL "rabat rai".[22] The F-FDTL's strength fell from 1,435 in January 2006 to 715 in September and the proportion of westerners in the military fell from 65 percent to 28 percent.[23]

White gates with buildings behind them
The gate to the F-FDTL Nicolau Lobato Training Centre near Metinaro

Iha 2004 komandante F-FDTL forma tim ida, nebe inkluye kontraktor internasional, atu harii dokumentu visaun estrategika largu plazo ba militar. Estudo ne suporta husi Governu Australian .[24] Nia resultadu dokumentu Force 2020 halo kompletu iha 2006 no halo publika iha 2007.[25] Dokumentu ne hateten visaun 'aspirational' ba dezenvolvimentu F-FDTL to´o 2020 e além de e é de estado equivalente a uma defesa white paper. Ida ne propose atu habelar militar atu besik 3,000 personnel regulariha medium term liu husi konskripsaun. ida ne mos tau longer-term goals hanesan establese komponente aereo no hola kilat modernu, hanesan anti-armour weapons, armoured personnel carriers and missile boats, iha 2020.[26]

The Force 2020 plan ne hanesan ho Opsaun 1 iha the King's College report. The King's College study team rekomenda makas liu kontra estrukura forsa ida ne, labelling isto "unaffordable" e elevando preocupações em cima do impacto de conscrição em sociedade de Timorese Oriental e prontidão de exército. Tim ida ne kalkula kata se uza estrutura de força ida ne valeriam 2.6 a 3.3 percent do anuário de Timor Oriental Produto Doméstico Total e representaria um fardo pesado na economia de Timor Oriental".[27] Moreover, the Force 2020 plano pode não ser realístico ou satisfatório como parece enfatizar expansão militar a contador ameaças externas em cima de gastar em outros serviços de governo e segurança interna e esboça idéias como o a longo prazo (~2075) development of space forces.[28]

Mentras Force 2020 plan hetan controversial, Governo Timor atu adopta ida ne. Planu ne hetan kritika husi United Nations no Governu Australia no United States como unaffordable e mais das necessidades de Timor Oriental.[29] Presidente José Ramos-Horta defende plano ida ne, porém, discutindo que sua adoção transformará o F-FDTL em uma força profissional capaz de defender a soberania de Timor Oriental e contribuir à estabilidade da nação.[30]funcionários de defesa Timorese também deram ênfase a que Força 2020 é um plano a longo prazo e não propõe adquirindo armas avançadas durante alguns anos. A partir de cedo 2008 o plano não tinha sido aprovado por parlamento mas planos estava sendo feito para sua implementação.[25]

As repercussões da 2006 crise continuam sendo sentidas. No dia 11 2008 de fevereiro, um grupo de rebeldes conduzido por Alfredo Reinado attempted Oriental para matar ou seqüestrar o Presidente Ramos-Horta e Primeiro-ministro Gusmão. Embora Ramos-Horta e um dos guardas dele esteja mal ferido, estes ataques não tiveram foram matados êxito e Reinado e outro rebelde. Foram estabelecidos um F-FDTL em comum e comando de PNTL para procurar os rebeldes sobreviventes e o exército e polícia demonstrou um grau alto de cooperação durante esta operação.[31] The joint Comand foi licenciado no dia 19 2008 de junho. Enquanto The Joint Comand contribuiu à rendição de muitos dos sócios de Reinado, foi alegado que os sócios do comando cometeram violações de direitos humanos.[32] Iha 2008 de junho que o Governo ofereceu prover compensação financeira aos solicitantes que desejaram voltar a vida de civil. Esta oferta foi aceitada, e todos os solicitantes voltaram às casas deles/delas em agosto que ano.[33]

Command arrangements[edita]

Major General Taur Matan Ruak in December 2009

A Constituição de estados de Timor Orientais que o Presidente é o xefe supremo da força de defesa e tem o poder para designar o xefe do F-FDTL e Chefe de Pessoal. O Council Oriental de Ministros e National Oriental é responsável para fundar o F-FDTL e fixar política relativo à segurança de Timor Oriental.[1] Prime Minster Gusmão also serves as the current Minister of Defence and Security.[34] A Superior Council for Defence and Security was also established in 2005 to advise the President on defence and security policy and legislation and the appointment and dismissal of senior military personnel. The council is chaired by the President and includes the Prime Minister, the defence, justice, interior and foreign affairs ministers, the heads of the F-FDTL and PNTL a national state security officer and three representatives from the national parliament. The council's role is not clear, however, and neither it nor the parliament served as a check against the decision to sack large numbers of F-FDTL personnel in 2006.[35] A parliamentary committee also provides oversight of East Timor's security sector.[34]

A small Ministry of Defence (which was renamed the Ministry of Defence and Security in 2007) was established in 2002 to provide civilian oversight of the F-FDTL. A lack of suitable staff for the Ministry and the close political relationship between senior F-FDTL officers and government figures rendered this oversight largely ineffectual and retarded the development of East Timor's defence policy up to at least 2004.[36] The failure to institute effective civilian oversight of the F-FDTL also limited the extent to which foreign countries are willing to provide assistance to the F-FDTL[37] and contributed to the 2006 crisis.[38] As at early 2010 the Ministry of Defence and Security was organised into elements responsible for defence (including the F-FDTL) and security (including the PNTL), each headed by their own Secretary of State. At this time the East Timorese Government was working to expand the Ministry's capacity with assistance from UNMIT, but continuing shortages of qualified staff limited the extent to which the Ministry could provide civilian oversight to the security sector.[39]

Organizsaun[edita]

The F-FDTL's structure in 2007

O F-FDTL é organizado em um exército de dois batalhões de infantaria de luz, um componente naval e unidades apoiando. Estas unidades de apoio incluem a sede de força, uma unidade de apoio de logistic, uma unidade de comunicações e uma companhia de polícia militar. Timor oriental não tem um força aérea e o F-FDTL não opera nenhuma aeronave atualmente. O F-FDTL também opera o "maior e mais sofisticado" human rede em Timor Oriental, baseado na resistência clandestina que informa redes construída durante a ocupação indonésia,.[40] In May 2008 the national parliament passed a law which places the F-FTDL's intelligence branch under the authority of the head of the National Information Service.[41]

The F-FDTL has an authorised strength of 1,500 regular personnel and 1,500 reservists. It has never reached these totals as funding shortfalls have prevented the reserve component from being formed and the Army's two regular battalions have remained under-strength.[42] While all the F-FDTL's personnel were initially FALINTIL veterans the force's composition has changed over time and few soldiers from the insurgency remain due to the force's narrow age requirement.[43] After the F-FDTL's 1st Battalion was established in 2001 recruitment was opened to all East Timorese above the age of 18, including women.[44] Few women have joined the F-FDTL, however, and as at February 2010 only seven percent of new recruits were female.[45][46]

Army[edita]

The land force of the F-FDTL consists of two light infantry battalions, each with an authorised strength of 600 personnel. The force was predominantly trained by the Australian and Portuguese militaries.[47] Each battalion has three rifle companies, a support company and a headquarters company.[48] Although the army is small, the guerrilla tactics employed by FALINTIL before the departure in 1999 of the Indonesian military were effective against overwhelming numbers and it has the potential to form a credible deterrent against invasion.[49]

F-FDTL soldiers raise flags during a parade marking Falantil Day

The US Embassy in Dili states that in 2009 the F-FDTL comprised 719 qualified soldiers and a further 579 in training. Of the 579 recruits under training it is planned that 150 will be allocated to the Naval Component.[50]

The army's two battalions are located in separate bases. The 1st Battalion is based at Baucau, with a contingent in the seaside coastline village of Laga.[42] The 2nd Battalion is stationed at the Nicolau Lobato Training Centre near Metinaro.[51] Almost all of the 2nd Battalion's soldiers were dismissed during the 2006 crisis.[23]

Logistics and service support is provided through Headquarters F-FDTL in Dili. There is also a military police unit that polices the F-FDTL and in addition performs traditional policing tasks, resulting in conflicting roles with the PNTL. The military police have also been responsible for presidential security since February 2007.[52] The F-FDTL is planning to raise two engineer squadrons with a total of 125 personnel during 2010.[53]

The F-FDTL is armed only with small arms and does not have any crew-served weapons. The 2007 edition of Jane's Sentinel states that the F-FDTL has the following equipment in service: 1,560 M16 rifles and 75 M203 grenade launchers, 75 FN Minimi squad automatic weapons, 8 sniper rifles and 50 .45 M1911A1 pistols. A further 75 Minimis are to be ordered. The majority of the F-FDTL's weapons were donated by other countries.[54]

Componente Naval[edita]

The Naval Component of the F-FDTL was established in December 2001 when Portugal transferred two small Albatroz class patrol boats from the Portuguese Navy. Its establishment was not supported by the King's College study team, the UN or East Timor's other donor countries on the grounds that East Timor could not afford to operate a naval force.[55] The role of the Naval Component is to conduct fishery and border protection patrols and ensure that the maritime line of communication to the Oecussi enclave remains open.[56] As at June 2010 the Naval Component is equipped with four patrol boats.[57] Under the Force 2020 plan the Naval Component may eventually be expanded to a light patrol force equipped with corvette-sized ships and landing craft.[58]

Members of the F-FDTL Naval Component with US Marines

The two Albatroz class patrol boats Oecussi and Atauro are each armed with a 20 mm Oerlikon cannon and two 12.7 mm machine guns and are based at Hera Harbour a few kilometres east of Dili.[56] They were built in the early 1970s and were in the process of being decommissioned from the Portuguese Navy at the time they were offered to East Timor.[59] The patrol boats' high operating costs are a significant constraint on the Naval Component.[60]

On 12 April 2008 East Timor signed a contract for two new Chinese-built 43 metre Type-62 class patrol boats. These ships will replace the Albatroz class ships and be used to protect East Timor's fisheries. The contract for the ships also involves 30 to 40 East Timorese personnel being trained in China.[61][62] It has also been reported that East Timor's shore infrastructure will also be updated as part of the acquisition of the Type-62 class ships.[56] The two new patrol boats arrived from China in June 2010 and were commissioned as the Jaco Class on the eleventh of the month.[63][64] The craft have been named Jaco and Betano.[57]

Reports on the Naval Component's strength are contradictory; while the 2009–2010 edition of Jane's Fighting Ships states that 150 personnel are under training,[56] the 2010 edition of the IISS Military Balance lists the Naval Component's size as 82 personnel.[65] The United States Embassy in Dili states that the Naval Component comprised 87 personnel at the end of 2009 and is to be expanded by a further 150.[50]

Defence expenditure and procurement[edita]

East Timor Government budget papers show that the F-FDTL has been allocated funding of $US17.713 million for 2010, with additional funding being provided to the Ministry of Defence and Security and Secretariat of State for Defence.[66] Despite this expenditure, East Timor is reliant on foreign aid to fund and equip the F-FDTL. The aid is provided in the form of military equipment, such as weapons and uniforms, and through the provision of training and assistance with logistics. No military production currently takes place in East Timor, though the country may eventually manufacture its own military uniforms.[67] The King's College report estimated that a military of 1,500 regulars and 1,500 reservists would cost approximately one percent of East Timor's GDP and that this was the highest level of military expenditure the country could sustain.[68]

Funding shortfalls have constrained the development of the F-FDTL. The government has been forced to postpone plans to form an independent company stationed in the Oecussi enclave and two reserve infantry battalions. These units formed an important part of the King's College report's Option 3 force structure and their absence may have impacted on East Timor's defence policy.[69] The signing of agreements to purchase patrol boats from China and military equipment from Malaysia in 2008 may indicate that East Timor is increasing its defence budget in order to modernise the F-FDTL.[70]

Foreign defence relations[edita]

A map of East Timor marked with the locations of Locations of UNMIT military liaison teams
Locations of UNMIT military liaison teams as at February 2010

Template:See also

Foreign countries play a key role in supporting the F-FDTL and are providing security in East Timor until the Timorese security forces are ready to resume this responsibility. The United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT) is tasked with supporting the East Timorese government and security institutions, including the F-FDTL. UNMIT was established on 25 August 2006 and replaced the United Nations Office in Timor Leste (UNOTIL). As at 30 June 2010 UNMIT had a strength of 1,466 uniformed personnel, including 1,434 police and 32 military observers. These personnel were supported by 354 international civilians, 907 local civilian workers and 176 UN volunteers.[71] UNMIT includes a Military Liaison Group which maintains teams in Dili, Baucau, Maliana, Suai, and Oecussi. These teams collect information on security issues for UNMIT and liaise with both the East Timorese Border Police and the Indonesian military in border districts.[72]

UNMIT is supported by an Australian-led International Stabilisation Force (ISF). The ISF was deployed to East Timor in late May 2006 and currently includes units from the Australian Defence Force and the New Zealand Defence Force. The main element of the ISF is the ANZAC Battle Group, which has a strength of about 400 Australians and 150 New Zealanders as at August 2010.[73]

The presence of UN police and Australian troops was a key issue in the 2007 East Timorese presidential election. The winning candidate, José Ramos-Horta, backed the presence of foreign forces and told rallies that he would like these forces to remain for at least five years. Most other candidates called for the UN and ISF to withdraw as soon as possible, arguing that their presence limits East Timor's sovereignty. Despite the differing views on how long the UN and ISF should remain in East Timor, all the parties regard the presence of foreign peacekeepers as being necessary until the F-FDTL and PNTL are ready to take responsibility for the country's security.[74]

While the UN has historically been reluctant to engage with the F-FDTL, several bilateral donors have assisted the force's development. Australia has provided extensive training and logistical support to the F-FDTL since it was established, and currently provides advisors who are posted to the F-FDTL and Ministry of Defence and Security. Portugal also provides advisors and trains two naval officers each year in Portugal. China has provided US$1.8 million in aid to the F-FDTL since 2002 and agreed to build a new US$7 million headquarters for the force in late 2007. East Timor is one of Brazil's main destinations for aid and the Brazilian Army is responsible for training the F-FDTL's military police unit. The United States also provides a small amount of assistance to the F-FDTL through the State Department's International Military Education and Training Program. While Malaysia has provided training courses and financial and technical aid, this assistance was suspended after the 2006 crisis.[75] Under current arrangements Portugal provides the F-FDTL with basic and advanced training while Australia and other nations provide training in specialized skills.[53]

Notes[edita]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Rees (2004). Pages 7–9.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Rees (2004). Page 14.
  3. Amnesty International (2003). Page 2.
  4. UNMIT (2010), p. 10
  5. 5.0 5.1 Wainwright (2002). Page 23.
  6. The Centre for Defence Studies, King's College, London. Paragraph 205.
  7. The Centre for Defence Studies, King's College, London. Paragraphs 7.2 to 7.4
  8. Fawthrop and Harris (2001). Page 37.
  9. Template:Cite news
  10. Smith (2005). Pages 31–32.
  11. Ball (2002). Page 180.
  12. Rees (2004). Page 31.
  13. Template:Cite news
  14. Jane's Sentinel Security Assessment - Southeast Asia. Issue 20 – 2007. Page 148.
  15. Jane's Sentinel Security Assessment - Southeast Asia. Issue 20 – 2007. Page 116.
  16. Horta (2006)
  17. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named icg2
  18. 18.0 18.1 United Nations Independent Special Commission of Inquiry for Timor-Leste (2007). Page 21.
  19. United Nations Independent Special Commission of Inquiry for Timor-Leste (2007), pages 21–30 and International Crisis Group (2008), page 2.
  20. United Nations Independent Special Commission of Inquiry for Timor-Leste (2007). Pages 31–33
  21. Template:Cite press release
  22. International Crisis Group (2008). Page i.
  23. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named icg5
  24. Burton (2007). Page 101.
  25. 25.0 25.1 International Crisis Group (2008). Page 8.
  26. Template:Cite news
  27. The Centre for Defence Studies, King's College, London. Paragraphs 7.2 and 205–212.
  28. International Crisis Group (2008). Pages 6 and 9.
  29. Template:Cite news
  30. Template:Cite press release Template:Dead link
  31. Template:Cite news
  32. UNMIT (2008). Page 2 and pages 5–6.
  33. UNMIT (2009). Page 2
  34. 34.0 34.1 UNMIT (2010), p. 11
  35. Burton (2007). Pages 100–101.
  36. Rees (2004). Pages 11–14.
  37. Rees (2004). Page 28.
  38. UNMIT (2006). Page 17.
  39. UNMIT (2010), pp. 11 and 14
  40. Rees (2004). Page 56.
  41. UNMIT (2008). Page 8.
  42. 42.0 42.1 Rees (2004). Page 29.
  43. La’o Hamutuk Bulletin (2005)
  44. Jane's Sentinel Security Assessment - Southeast Asia. Issue 20 – 2007. Page 116
  45. UNMIT (2006). Page 29.
  46. UNMIT (2010), p. 14
  47. Ball (2002). Pages 179–180.
  48. Rees (2004). Pages 28–29.
  49. Wainwright (2002). Page 34.
  50. 50.0 50.1 Embassy of the United States, Dili (2010), p. 3
  51. Lowry (2006), page 4 and Rees (2004), pages 29–31.
  52. International Crisis Group (2008). Page 15.
  53. 53.0 53.1 Embassy of the United States, Dili (2010), p. 4
  54. Jane's Sentinel Security Assessment - Southeast Asia. Issue 20 – 2007. Pages 146 and 152.
  55. Jane's Sentinel Security Assessment - Southeast Asia. Issue 20 – 2007. Page 148.
  56. 56.0 56.1 56.2 56.3 Saunders (2009). Page 204.
  57. 57.0 57.1 Template:Citation/make link. Royal Australian Navy. 16 June 2010. Archived from Template:Citation/make link on 19 June 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100619121214/http://www.navy.gov.au/Chief_of_Navy_visits_East_Timor. Retrieved 6 August 2010. 
  58. Template:Cite news
  59. Ball (2002). Page 181.
  60. Wainwright (2002). Page 25.
  61. Template:Cite news
  62. Template:Cite journal
  63. Template:Cite news
  64. Template:Citation/make link. Government of Timor-Leste. http://timor-leste.gov.tl/?p=2865&lang=en. Retrieved 6 August 2010. 
  65. IISS (2010), p. 432
  66. Republica Democratica De Timor-Leste (2010), p. 67
  67. Jane's Sentinel Security Assessment - Southeast Asia. Issue 20 – 2007. Pages 142 and 153.
  68. The Centre for Defence Studies, King's College, London. Paragraphs 7.4 and 158.
  69. Rees (2004). Page 27.
  70. Template:Cite journal Page 15.
  71. Template:Citation/make link. Template:Citation/make link. United Nations. Archived from Template:Citation/make link on 17 September 2012. https://archive.is/YGjM. Retrieved 6 August 2010. 
  72. Template:Citation/make link. Template:Citation/make link. United Nations. http://unmit.unmissions.org/Default.aspx?tabid=180. Retrieved 6 August 2010. 
  73. Template:Citation/make link. Template:Citation/make link. Australian Department of Defence. http://www.defence.gov.au/op/eastTimor/commitment.htm. Retrieved 6 August 2010. 
  74. International Crisis Group (2007). Page 6.
  75. International Crisis Group (2008). Pages 12–13.

Referensia[edita]

Books and reports
Journal articles

Ligasaun ba li'ur[edita]

Commons commons:Main Page
Commons: Forcas Defensa Timor Lorosae – Imajen sira